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tv   Native American Effigy Mounds  CSPAN  November 16, 2014 3:53pm-4:03pm EST

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indian affairs. there were other people within the society who didn't think the bureau had a place. they also factionalized over the issue of peyote. this had been a movement that was growing. a pan indian religious movement. the society debated this ad was on both sides. ultimately, what happened, the society would dissipate over these kinds of issues of theyict so that by 1923, had their last meeting in chicago. the society would lead to the formation of the national council of american indians, and subsequently, the national congress of american indians, which still operates today. i think it isn't working to take recognition of the 100th anniversary of the fourth annual of the society of american indians that took place here on the campus of the university of wisconsin madison. it seems that this conference at the time started a relationship
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between the university and the tribes of wisconsin. conference,r this the university began to reach out to the american indian ofmunities in the state wisconsin, sending researchers and other personnel. we get the beginnings of a research relationship. i think it is time that we look back on that history and look forward to the next 100 years of the relationship. american history tv is featuring wisconsin's madison.ital, the city was named for james madison, and many streets surrounding the capital square are named after other signers of the constitution. posted by our charter cable partners, c-span staff recently visited many sites showcasing the city's history. learn more about madison all weekend here on american history tv. we are standing on
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observatory hill on the campus of the university of wisconsin madison. effigy moundstwo on campus. madison is lucky. it has more effigy mounds than any other campus in the united states. a glacialroaching rock. wingtip of athe bird effigy mound built here around 1000 years ago. effigy mounds are difficult to photograph. they are quite shy. every time they see a camera, they sink down into the earth and hide themselves. they're not prominent earthworks, but they are very special. the wingtips extended towards the hedge. near the sidewalk and fence by the building. the body comes down the hill toward the lakeshore, and then
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the other wing is just out of sight on the other side of the body of the mound. we are looking at the bird effigy from a slightly different perspective. the bodies extending down the slope towards the lake, and the wings extend off to each side as if it is flying up towards the top of the hill. these can be considered kind of a tombstone. they marked the graves of the dead and are carved in the spirits, animals and just as sometimes you see modern headstones carved in the shapes of urns or other architectural things. not everyone got a mound. we have graves and sets of human remains, sometimes cremations, sometimes full burials. some folks got mounds but had to share them. some folks got mounds that were not refugees. -- effigies. divisionmed to be some
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in the effigy builders society, but we are not clear what that is yet. students are beginning to suspect that it may be, if not economic, at least some sort of social difference. the blueberry in the conical mound have a little worse nutrition. they are a little bit more likely to have suffered an accident. they're more likely to have to share their amount with fellow community members. effigy builders tend to get amounts to themselves or with one or two other people. it may be that they are higher ranking. they may be religious or political leaders. i wish we could ask them. we really know nothing about what is under either of these mounds. neither one has been excavated. like all the mounds in wisconsin, they are protected by state law. times when an amateur person would excavated a mound, that is over. we have to rely on older literature. they stunned that, i would guess that there is a single grave in
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this bird effigy holding an adult, a child, male or female. betweends were built 1250 ad in a time as the late woodland. they were gardeners and hunters andmoved around wisconsin parts of adjoining states and were a spectacular people. they built these monumental sculptures for their death -- structures for their dead and changed the landscape permanently so we cannot forget them. basket at these one the time, taking topsoil from the surrounding areas. there was no sign they were digging deep pits to get phil -- fill.
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they were probably digging shallow scrapes so the land would heal quickly and he raised the damage they have done to make the mound. the madison area is an extremely rich environment. we have a concentration of several large lakes surrounded by productive marshes that would've been home to flocks of waterfowl, geese, ducks, along with plans like wild rice and edible roots. this would've been a wonderful place to live, very rich in resources, and a place with enough shelter to see them through the winter. the presence of high hills like we are standing on left behind by the glaciers in close proximity to water may have inspired them to place the mounds here halfway between the earth and the sky. we believe there is a ceremonial significance to this place, as well. the mounds are concentrated in particular locations in wisconsin and surrounding states. we believe those are the centers of specific territories.
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the shapes change as you move from one territory to the next because these may be family or clan symbols. the folks living in the madison area would've moved around the madison area and probably between one the campus has more than any other campus in the world. picnic point is a popular spot to relax and look at the lake. there is also a group of mountains near the lake shore. there are other mounds in the arboretum. mound. not a turtle it is a term that was applied for any mound shown from above. the actual creature that seems
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to be represented is a spirit known as a water panther. home to one of those spirits. we have the head of the spirit up on top and the body extends down the slope as if it is crawling from the lake. this is extending in this direction. il, one comesa this way and the second one went for the greenhouse and took a right angle turn. i wish we knew why because it is two-tailto tail -- mounds ever recorded in
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wisconsin. it is not uncommon when you visit a site to see there have been offerings left behind. toll very significant places wisconsin's tribal nations. it is their heritage and we are very lucky to be able to protect these places here in madison so they can be visited by the newcomers. and the i have been studying the effigy mounds for 15 years. i have learned a lot and other researchers have learned a lot. engagingwonderful and works of art. you can see the hands of the artists still today on them. at the same time, they are mysteries. they have not given up all of the knowledge they can yet. as newhn

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